Tiny energetic neutrinos that could have come from galaxies spotted in Antarctica

Tiny energetic neutrinos that could have come from galaxies spotted in Antarctica
News from Nature World Report:

Scientists have confirmed the presence of cosmic neutrinos buried deep with Antarctic’s ice sheets. These tiny, energetic particles called neutrinos could have arrived from galaxies such as our Milky Way and beyond.

Researchers have sorted through the billions of subatomic particles that zip through its frozen cubic-kilometer-sized detector each year to gather powerful new evidence in support of 2013 observations confirming the existence of cosmic neutrinos.

Between May 2010 and May 2012, IceCube recorded more than 35,000 neutrinos. However, only about 20 of those neutrino events were clocked at energy levels indicative of astrophysical or cosmic sources.

The evidence is important because it heralds a new form of astronomy using neutrinos, the nearly massless high-energy particles generated in nature’s accelerators: black holes, massive exploding stars and the energetic cores of galaxies. In the new study, the detection of 21 ultra high-energy muons — secondary particles created on the very rare occasions when neutrinos interact with other particles –provides independent confirmation of astrophysical neutrinos from our galaxy as well as cosmic neutrinos from sources outside the Milky Way.

Because they have almost no mass and no electric charge, neutrinos can be very hard to de……………. continues on Nature World Report

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Wildlife | Monarch butterflies: More than meets the eye
News from Pittsburgh Post-Gazette:

Monarch butterfly populations hit rock bottom in the winter of 2013-2014 when they occupied an area of just 2.8 acres of an oyamel fir forest on a central Mexican mountaintop. According to a report by Monarch Joint Venture, a Minnesota-based conservation group, the population was estimated to be 33 million monarchs. That may seem like a lot of butterflies, but in 1996-97 the population peaked at 1 billion monarchs occupying 44.5 acres of winter habitat.

Last year I saw just one monarch and I received very few reports from readers. So I’m not surprised that I’ve gotten lots of mail asking how monarchs are doing this year.

In the winter of 2014-15, the population rebounded to 56 million. This summer I saw my first monarch Aug. 1. Since then, however, I’ve seen more every day. My own observations coupled with reports I’ve received from readers suggest that monarchs have made an encouraging comeback this year.

Chip Taylor of the education, conservation and research group MonarchWatch.org, reports that there have been “lots of eggs in the upper Midwest, from Michigan to the Dakotas.” This is critically important because more than 90 percent of the monarchs that winter in Mexico originate here.

On the other hand, Virginia-based Lincoln Brower, who has studied monarchs for decades, is less optimistic.

“I’ve only seen four monarch this summer — so far,” he said, last week.

Here’s what you can do to help monarch butterflies.

1…………….. continues on Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

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